Russian Military Threats Expose Europe’s Drastic Need for More Lithium

The fundamentals for a European lithium boom are firmly in place1 — and North American investors are itching to get in on the EU action…

J. Daryl Thompson is a self-proclaimed stock trading “addict” who began his investment career by working for a legendary Houston billionaire investment counselor for 15 years. Early on during his professional career, Daryl designed systems for the analysis, testing, and presentation of data. Originally a country boy from the Deep South with a penchant for numbers, Daryl received a Mathematics degree from the University of Oklahoma. While he eats, lives, sleeps and breathes trading stocks, he also works as a financial and business consultant.

With Russia breathing down their neck, and China in control of the global lithium supply, European nations desperately need more local sources of the critical mineral to reduce supply chain risks. Despite the many European battery factories in the works, most lithium raw materials come from far away — Australia and South America.[2]

In addition to lithium’s many military defense applications, the mineral is essential to our shift to renewable energy, including electric vehicles and energy storage solutions.

Europe aims to become the first climate neutral continent in the world.[3]This means the timing could not be better for United Lithium (ULTHF), a Canadian exploration and development company with lithium assets in two European countries.  And their Swedish Bergby Project with its newly discovered lithium deposit is well-positioned to benefit from access to the EU market.[4]

Get to know United Lithium (ULTHF) now — before it could become a key player in the race to meet Europe’s growing need for the “energy metal.”

As tensions rise at the Russia-Ukraine border, NATO countries are flexing their defensive muscles…

While Ukraine is not a member of NATO, the alliance is trying to defuse the crisis with Russia while demonstrating its military capabilities and commitment to NATO partners.[5]

In late January 2022, American F-15 jet fighters arrived in Estonia to join an ongoing NATO mission over the Baltics. Denmark has sent F-16 fighters to Lithuania on a similar mission.[6]

A 40,000 man NATO Response Force has been activated.[7] President Biden has authorized the deployment of 3,000 U.S. troops to three European countries to bolster NATO allies.[8]

This is the big picture view.

But the devil’s in the details, as they say…

Because, as the Wall Street Journal has noted, the most effective defense against a military assault is something you might not expect.

It’s a “good battery.”[9]

Both the European Commission[10] and the U.S. Department of Defense[11] have stressed that advanced battery technology and an adequate supply chain are essential to national security and military defense.

But the critical nature of this technology — more specifically, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries — is not limited to military defense.

We use various forms of these batteries daily in our electronic devices such as laptops and smartphones. What’s more, the technology is crucial in making the transition to a “green and clean” future, a key component in electric vehicles (EVs) and energy storage systems.

With all these applications, particularly with regard to today’s military defense, the EU and other nations need a LOT more of the silvery-white metal.

Unfortunately, as of now there are still no working lithium mines in Europe.[12]

Today, China — an ally to Russia — controls around 80% of the global production of battery raw materials, including lithium.[13]

Russia intends to launch its own lithium mines in Siberia, and take over 10% of the global lithium market by 2030.[14]

So between his country and his “friends,” Vladimir Putin may not be worried about where his lithium supply is coming from…

But what about all the member countries of the European Union?

As mentioned above, European nations desperately need more local sources of the energy metal. Right now, most lithium raw materials come from far away — Australia and South America.[15]

That’s a major reason why I’ve been looking at the North American company United Lithium (ULTHF) — and their Bergby Project, a newly discovered lithium deposit right in the heart of central Sweden.[16]

I’ll share more about this exciting find in a moment, but let’s get back to the current military crisis that demonstrates why lithium is so in-demand.

NATO Needs More Lithium-ion Batteries to Respond to Putin’s Growling Bear

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have long been power sources for military aircraft such as F-16 fighter jets, due to their high energy density, lower weight, and maintenance-free operation.[17]

Newer F-35 combat aircraft are fitted with technologically advanced Li-ion batteries contributing to mission-critical roles, including backup power systems.[18]

Experts warn that NATO needs many more of these lithium-filled F-35 jets to keep up with continued threats from Russia.[19]

However, the military uses of lithium-filled batteries extend far beyond fighter jets.

NATO is quickly following the U.S. military’s lead by rapidly converting battle equipment into state-of-the-art Li-ion battery-powered hybrid electric vehicles.[20]

Li-ion batteries are also the key to powering unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones. Defense forces use these vehicles, which can carry small armaments, because they are less expensive to operate than cost-intensive attack aircraft.[21]

Of course, the use of drones is not limited to military and law enforcement. Commercial users such as Amazon are working toward using them for delivery service.[22] They are used in construction, retail, agriculture, mapping and surveying, and numerous other applications.[23]

In 2021, the drone market was projected to grow at 9.4% CAGR and reach $41 billion by 2026.[24]

Suffice it to say, the U.S. Department of Defense uses lithium batteries in almost every weapon system they utilize, and especially in portable equipment. Because lithium-ion batteries offer more energy for less weight, they are a vital item for soldiers, who carry from 15-25 pounds of batteries alone.[25]

It’s no wonder there’s such a demand for the energy metal…

The Growing Global Need for Lithium

S&P Global Market Intelligence expects global lithium demand to increase by 91% between 2019 and 2024, reaching 590,000 U.S. tons of lithium carbonate equivalent. Electric vehicles will likely account for nearly 3/4 of that demand increase.[26] 

As the world heals from the coronavirus, governments are steering consumers into buying cleaner electric-powered vehicles, especially in Europe and Asia, where the majority of the world’s population lives.

Moreover, the “Green New Deal” does get one thing right, no matter what your personal beliefs may be.

It recognizes the fast-growing global demand for wind and solar electricity generation. That’ll be huge in Europe and Asia. All that clean energy will need to be stored before it can make its way into the grid. And storage will mean lots of huge lithium-ion batteries.

And this seismic shift in focus, combined with the exponential growth of electric-powered vehicles and electronics for personal and business use could create soaring demand for lithium.

[Chart Source:[27]]

And as you’ve seen, demand should grow exponentially in the years ahead because this unique metal is also a critical component of the military weapons across the globe that protect the Free World by keeping communist China and kleptocrat Russians at bay.

So it’s no wonder one energy insider predicts…

“…the 21st century is paved in lithium.”[28]

I’d have to agree.

And it’s a key reason why the Canadian junior mining exploration company United Lithium (ULTHF) is catching the eye of investors.*

By the way, my name is J. Daryl Thompson. I’m a self-proclaimed stock trading “addict” and began my investment career by working for a legendary Houston billionaire investment counselor for 15 years. I’ve been focused on market trends that all point to the growing global demand for lithium, whether it’s for military defense, electric vehicles, energy storage, or just our addiction to smartphones and laptop computers. Energy-dense lithium ion batteries are even used by satellites and the International Space Station — and can be massive in size.

Europe’s Booming EV Battery Market

Europe accounted for the second-largest share of the global lithium market in 2020.[29]

The growth of the lithium market in Europe can be attributed, in large part, to the increasing production of EVs in the region — EVs that require lithium batteries.

In 2020, Europe surpassed China in terms of electric vehicle production and became the largest manufacturer of these vehicles in the world.[30]

And by 2050, Europe will require up to 60 times more lithium for electric car batteries and energy storage alone, according to the European Commission.[31]

Data from Benchmark shows battery demand in Europe is set to increase at an annualized rate of 40% between 2020 and 2025.[32]

Europe is serious about their commitment.

Research from Wood Mackenzie shows that, during 2019 and 2020, Europe invested more than any other region in its battery industry, predominantly in lithium-ion technology.  It could be the world’s second largest battery manufacturer (after China) by 2030.[33]

This all adds up to one thing…

“The fundamentals for a European lithium boom are in place.”[34]

And this could be great news for a company like United Lithium (ULTHF)…*

Europe Needs More Lithium Mines for Their Battery Needs

While China dominates battery production today, Europe clearly wants to break the Asian stranglehold on lithium-ion batteries.

But there’s a BIG issue…

“Investing in local mines for raw materials is necessary, as an overreliance on imports has left Europe unable to influence supply and future prices.” – Wood Mackenzie, December 2021[35]

According to Investors’ Chronicle, as European carmakers ramp up plans and plants for electrical vehicles, the race is on to get “greener, closer-to-home raw material supplies.”[36]

Unfortunately, there’s a growing disconnect between battery demand and raw material supply that could derail Europe’s electrification plans.[37]

This is especially true with all the battery manufacturing plants being developed in Europe.

[chart source:[38]]

The EU just approved $3.5 billion in subsidies to help boost the production of EV batteries in Europe.[39] Countries set to benefit include Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Finland, and Sweden.[40]

However, Europe will need virgin materials such as lithium in high volumes. To avoid the cost and risks of shipping materials long distances, new mines in Europe aim to reduce these supply-chain risks.

The Swedish battery company Northvolt, headed by former Tesla executives, is banking on the fact that Scandinavia has one of the world’s highest EV adoption rates.[41]

In fact, in 2019 Norway already had 56% of its vehicles running on electricity.[42]

And getting back to Sweden…

New Lithium Potential in Sweden

My pulse went up by a few beats when I learned that United Lithium (ULTHF) has snagged what could be among the largest and most valuable of undeveloped European lithium resources.* 

Their Bergby Project is a newly discovered lithium deposit in east-central Sweden, secured by eight exploration licenses covering 26,750 acres.[43]

Of course, it’s great news that Bergby is optimally positioned to benefit from access to the EU/UK market and the demands for alternative energy vehicle manufacturing… grid storage systems… proximity to next generation lithium-Ion battery manufacturing plants… educational institutions… and the development of Li-Ion research and development.[44]

And here’s another thing: The Bergby Project is near Sweden’s new Northvolt lithium battery Gigafactory.[45] 

The property is also close to major mining and transportation infrastructure, workforce, and equipment. It has an abundant supply of fresh water and low power costs for processing hard rock lithium-bearing minerals in a cost-effective manner.[46] 

Speaking of hard rock mining, I know many folks get confused about the different ways of getting lithium out of the earth…

Between a Rock and a Hard Place

Generally speaking, our lithium supply originates from two main forms — brines and hard rock.

Hard rock lithium mining involves coarse rocks called pegmatites. Within these pegmatites is a lithium-bearing mineral known as spodumene, which comes in crystals of various colors.[47] Pegmatites also host petalite, another ore of lithium.[48]

Here’s the important advantage when it comes to hard rock mining…

The lithium hosted in spodumene can be processed into either lithium hydroxide or lithium carbonate.[49]

On the other hand, brines can initially only be processed into lithium carbonate. Further processing into lithium hydroxide comes at an additional cost.[50]

And it’s lithium hydroxide that is becoming more desirable by battery producers.

As it turns out, lithium hydroxide is better suited to the production of battery components called cathodes, especially with regard to electric vehicles. This makes brines look less attractive to battery producers, and has led to industry players scaling up or increasing their hard rock mine assets.[51]

What’s more, brines can take longer to process due to the years of evaporation required. And here’s another plus: spodumene typically hosts higher lithium content in comparison to most brines.[52]

Impressive Findings at United Lithium’s (ULTHF) Swedish Bergby Project

When it comes to United Lithium’s (ULTHF) Bergby Project, one impressive finding was the numerous surface showings…

Historic mapping and sampling of the Bergby site located an extensive lithium-mineralized surface boulder field. 

This allows for surface and near surface extraction, always a huge plus when it comes to mining hard rock lithium, since it keeps mining costs down.[53]

In 2017, a drill program completed on the project found 28 of the 33 holes drilled on the property intersected lithium mineralization.[54]

In January 2022, United Lithium (ULTHF) reported a discovery of two new lithium-rich pegmatites at the Bergby Project in an ongoing drill program.[55]

The site was identified from boulder hunting and sampling and the company’s technical team anticipates further pegmatites will be located at Bergby.[56]

Michael Dehn, President and CEO of United Lithium (ULTHF) announced:

“We are excited to have achieved two new blind high grade lithium discoveries on the property in less than half a year of drilling. The boulder sampling program has been very successful at vectoring drill targeting for this new zone. The Bergby Project remains very unexplored, and we look forward to further testing of this discovery and additional targets in 2022.”[57]

It’s no wonder why investors are so excited about European lithium as an investment opportunity.* And it’s no wonder why now is a great time to check out the stunning growth potential for United Lithium (ULTHF).*

Especially with their mission to respect the environment…

More Environmentally Friendly Processing

ESG (environmental, social and governance) issues are beginning to set the agenda for companies in the mining and minerals industry.

This is important today, especially with an increased focus on environmental responsibility. And with the problems that come when running afoul of environmental issues.

In Serbia, Rio Tinto’s lithium mining licenses were revoked due to environmental complaints. The mine had positioned itself to become the largest source of lithium in Europe for the next 15 years.[58] According to Benchmark Mineral Intelligence, the mine would have accounted for around 27% of European lithium production by 2030. This has dealt a heavy blow to Europe’s battery makers and EV manufacturers.[59]

Metallurgical test work undertaken by United Lithium (ULTHF) aims to be more environmentally friendly, by reducing energy and water consumption, recycling reagents, and lowering reaction temperatures.[60]

In January 2022, the company announced completion of a series of roasting tests utilizing spodumene feedstock to develop and optimize more sustainable lithium extraction. Sixteen tests to optimize chemical roasting and several tests using microwave energy were completed in the current round of test work.[61]

“We continue to strive to reduce the carbon footprint of the spodumene concentrate to lithium oxide process at the same time as improving recoveries. With these optimizations, we aim to develop a robust, more environmentally friendly, and less expensive process to produce lithium oxide from petalite and spodumene feedstocks than the conventional process.”[62] – Michael Dehn, President and CEO of United Lithium (ULTHF)

And a bonus…

United Lithium (ULTHF) is now in discussion with several technical experts regarding the production of value-added consumer/industrial products from the feldspar, quartz and mica by-products that may be recovered in the mining of lithium pegmatites. This may enable no- or low-waste mining operations and enable environmentally friendly processing alternatives for these value-added products.[63]


Even More Shareholder Value With United Lithium’s Two Additional Assets in Finland and Canada

In December 2021, United Lithium (ULTHF) entered into an agreement to acquire an initial 83% interest in the Kietyönmäki Lithium Project in Finland.[65]

Historically, mapping and sampling of the Kietyönmäki site located an extensive lithium-mineralized surface boulder field.[66]

The Kietyönmäki Lithium Project seeks to capitalize on three key elements. These include cost effective surface and near surface extraction and rapid fulfillment of tariff-free sales to potential EU lithium customers. In addition, there is well-established mining and transportation infrastructure. The property is only 62 miles NW of Helsinki, and 62 miles from the port of Pori, Finland.[67] 

Plus, the Kietyönmäki Lithium Project is located less than 31 miles from the new Valmet Automotive Battery Factory in Salo and 62 miles from their Uusikaupunki Battery Factory.[68]

And getting back to basics…

United Lithium (ULTHF) got its start with their North American asset, strategically located in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada on the Barbara Lake Lithium Property. This property comprises 56 mining claims covering approximately 33.5 square miles.[69]

The Barbara Lake Lithium Property sits in proven lithium-rich resources, as evidenced by close proximity to Rock Teck Lithium’s Georgia Lake property.

This is a highly active lithium exploration area with several junior mining companies exploring for lithium and rare metal pegmatites.[70]

This Canadian property has readily available power, water, and a network of roads. 

What’s more, the city of Thunder Bay is a major transportation hub for Canada, with the largest outbound port on the St. Lawrence Seaway system, railway lines, and an international airport.[71]

Starting to see why North American investors are looking at opportunities like United Lithium (ULTHF)?

More Mean Green Lithium-Powered Machines

As Politico points out, climate change is coming for the European Union.[72]

To reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 55% from 1990 levels by 2030, the EU’s 27-nation bloc announced proposals in July 2021 that seek to phase out the internal combustion engine entirely.[73]

In fact, the European Commission’s goal is to make Europe the first carbon neutral continent in the world.[74]

This puts lithium in the driver’s seat when it comes to the electric vehicle (EV) revolution.

The global appetite for EVs is growing rapidly, particularly as the COVID-19 crisis, with its limited travel opportunities, is beginning to wind down.

According to Reuters, the EU aims to have at least 30 million zero-emission vehicles on its roads by 2030, as it steers member countries away from fossil fuel-based transportation.[75]

[Chart source[76]]

To meet the skyrocketing need for EV batteries, dozens of European Gigafactories are now operational or in progress.[77]

In exchange for a 20% stake, automaker Volkswagen has invested $2.75 billion in Northvolt, the Swedish battery cell Gigafactory just 350 miles from United Lithium’s (ULTHF) Bergby Project.[78]

“Volkswagen Group wants to become the global market leader in e-mobility and is investing a total of 35 billion euros in it by 2025.”[79]

[Chart source:[80]]

Volvo is also joining forces with Northvolt in Sweden, with a planned joint venture to develop next-generation, state-of-the-art battery cells for pure electric Volvo and Polestar vehicles.[81]

And while passenger electric vehicles are becoming more popular, it’s buses that are likely to push lithium supplies to the limit…

Hopping on public transport is how city-dwelling Europeans get to work and go about their business. And they take buses. Thousands of them.

In fact, Europe has 892,861 buses in service.[82]

And right now, battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid, hybrid, and alternative fuel-powered vehicles in combination already represent 27% of new bus sales in the EU.[83]

[image source[84]]

So it’s not surprising that Mordor Intelligence expects 20% growth rate in Europe’s electric bus fleet through 2026.[85]

That’s going to require an awful lot of lithium!

And it’s not just powerful onboard battery packs to consider. These buses need energy and huge power stations back at the garage for overnight charging.[86]

This could be a boon for United Lithium (ULTHF)* and especially its European-based lithium property in Bergby, Sweden.

Investing in the Climate Crisis: A “Win-Win” Strategy

Now, depending on your views, you may or may not agree that climate change is the major factor driving these extreme weather events.

But I think you’d agree that these events are happening. They are destructive and life-threatening.

Regardless of our personal views, U.S. and global policies are being developed under the assumption that climate change is real and must be addressed — in a huge and aggressive way.

However, the looming dangers of a changing climate also spell opportunity for natural resource investors.* 

Especially since they’ve exposed the reality that our energy grids are woefully unprepared for the future. 

In fact, as you’ll see below, United Lithium (ULTHF) has the potential to help this critical infrastructure problem.*

Crisis Leads to Lithium-Powered Opportunity With Mammoth Battery Storage Systems 

Power companies are increasingly looking to giant lithium-containing battery packs and other innovative storage technologies to balance power generation and utilization. 

These huge grid-level storage systems can convert electricity into a storable form that can be changed back into electrical energy when necessary.[87]

And this is not only beneficial during weather events and other natural disasters. 

These power grid batteries can also help balance the output of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. 

After all, the sun doesn’t shine 24 hours a day.

The wind isn’t always blowing. 

So these lithium-rich battery packs are ripe to tap as complementary energy sources. They can offer bursts of electricity at peak times and then charge themselves during times of low demand.[88]

Now, to be clear, failing power grids are not unique to the U.S.

Power Grid Disasters are a Global Issue

Bloomberg described January 8, 2021 as…

“The Day Europe’s Power Grid Came Close to a Massive Blackout”[89]

A disruption in the European high-voltage power grid that day caused the German Association of the Industrial Energy and Power Industry to warn “not to lose sight of the issue of grid stability and security of supply.”[90] 

Grid and climate issues are causing developed countries worldwide to invest more and more in energy storage systems based on lithium-ion batteries, which helps fuel the growth of the lithium market.

For example, in June 2021, the U.K. launched a 50-megawatt energy system connected to the high-voltage transmission system of its National Grid.[91]

This European grid vulnerability is another big reason why opportunity-minded investors should keep their eyes on United Lithium (ULTHF).

Residential Energy Storage Systems Also Rely on Lithium-Powered Batteries 

In addition to a growing market for these huge grid-sized energy storage systems, consumers are increasingly buying their own home-sized versions. 

For example, sonnenCore’s home energy storage system uses lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery chemistry.[92] Then there’s Tesla’s Powerwall, a rechargeable lithium-ion energy storage battery pack.[93]

Europe’s residential battery storage fleet is expected to grow over 400% by 2025. In fact, in 2020, over 100,000 storage systems were installed in Europe.[94]

All indicators tell me lithium demand could soon skyrocket, especially as we start facing the challenge of power grid failure around the world.

And that’s just one of the reasons why I’m looking at United Lithium (ULTHF) to help meet this challenge.

Get In On the Cusp of the Fifth Commodity ‘Supercycle’

There have only been four prior ‘supercycles’ over the last 100 years — opportune periods when commodity prices experience an extended boom.[95] 

The next 3 decades are “likely to bring a supercycle in investments in clean energy infrastructure, clean transportation and everything else that is required to make the green transition possible.”[96] 

These projects will require large amounts of metals, especially lithium.

The current world lithium production falls far short of what will be required to meet the soaring demand, particularly in Europe.

China controls the lion’s share of global lithium resources, but European battery manufacturers in particular want to break that stranglehold. To do this, they will be seeking reliable lithium resources as close to their factories as possible. 

For the first time in years, battery costs are going up due to one simple fact — the supply of critical battery metals is unable to match demand.[97]

Last year, some investors missed the boat on lithium entirely, especially when lithium prices actually rallied 300% over the last year alone.[98]

All these factors I’ve shared with you today could make United Lithium’s (ULTHF) potential lithium assets crucially important.*

To recap, here are …

9 Solid Reasons Why United Lithium (ULTHF) is Well-Positioned for the Booming Lithium Demand

The lithium exploration company Scotch Creek Ventures Inc. (SCVFFis well worth your consideration. Here’s why:

Take Your Position in United Lithium (ULTHF) Now

Analysts expect the lithium ion battery markets to hit $1 trillion by 2026.[109]

If you wish to be among the early bird big winners in the coming lithium explosion,* then you may want to show this report to your investment advisor or broker right away.

United Lithium (ULTHF) is a junior lithium exploration company, with assets in Sweden, Finland, and Canada.[110]

Investing in their company has the potential for higher rewards than other larger mining operations, but it also comes with higher risk. And past performance is no guarantee of future results.*

I’m not an investment advisor, let alone your investment advisor.  But my rule and admonition to all my readers is never invest more than you can afford to lose. Do not chase losses. That means if the prices slide you must resist all temptation to “average down.”*

And to minimize risk, any investment you may make in United Lithium (ULTHF) should be part of a wider asset allocation strategy in your portfolio.

But with that strong caution to my readers, I believe my analysis of the potentially huge reward of United Lithium (ULTHF)* is a good one.

Wishing you success in all your investments.

J. Daryl Thompson

P.S. Still want more information on United Lithium (ULTHF)?

I’d like to offer you access to United Lithium’s Investor Presentation, which you can have at no charge.

I’ll also begin a free subscription for you to our online investor newsletter, InvestingTrends.com.

Sign up below to learn about this investment opportunity.

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This PUBLICATION is an issuer-paid advertisement. This paid advertisement includes a stock profile of United Lithium Corp.(ULTHF) To enhance public awareness of ULTHF and its securities, the issuer has provided Promethean Marketing, Inc. (“Promethean”) with a total budget of approximately one million eight hundred fourty nine thousand eight hundred and ninety five ($1,849,895.00) USD to cover the costs associated with this advertisement for a period beginning August 28, 2020 and currently set to end May 31, 2022. In connection with this effort, Promethean has paid the author of this advertisement, J. Daryl Thompson, two thousand five hundred ($2,500.00) USD in cash out of the total budget. The website hosting this advertisement, Investing Trends, is owned by Summit Publishing Group, Inc. (“Summit”), an affiliate of Promethean. Neither Summit nor Investing Trends have been paid to host this advertisement. As a result of this advertisement, Investing Trends may receive advertising revenue from new advertisers and collect email addresses from readers that it may be able to monetize. Promethean will retain any excess sums after all expenses are paid. J. Daryl Thompson is solely responsible for the contents of this advertisement. As of the date this advertisement is posted to the Investing Trends website, some or all of Promethean, Investing Trends, Summit, or J. Daryl Thompson, and any of their respective officers, principals, or affiliates (as defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Rule 501(b) promulgated thereunder) may hold the securities of ULTHF and may sell those shares during the course of this advertising campaign. This advertisement may increase investor and market awareness, which may result in an increased number of shareholders owning and trading the securities of ULTHF, increased trading volume, and possibly an increased share price of ULTHF’s securities, which may or may not be temporary and decrease once the advertising campaign has ended. To more fully understand the Investing Trends website or service, please review its full Disclaimer and Disclosure Policy located here.

* See our Important Notice and Disclaimer above for a detailed discussion on compensation, risks, atypical results, and more.

[1] https://www.europeanmet.com/european-lithium-security/

[2] https://www.investorschronicle.co.uk/news/2021/12/21/the-race-for-european-lithium-supply-is-on/

[3] https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal/delivering-european-green-deal_en

[4] https://unitedlithium.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/ULTH-Presentation-Nov-2021-v01.pdf

[5] https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/us-nato-military-moves-send-message-russia-ukraine/story

[6] https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/us-nato-military-moves-send-message-russia-ukraine/story

[7] https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/us-nato-military-moves-send-message-russia-ukraine/story

[8] https://www.cnn.com/2022/02/02/politics/us-troops-europe-russia/index.html

[9] https://www.wsj.com/articles/a-good-battery-is-the-best-defense-against-a-military-assault-11617136935

[10] https://rmis.jrc.ec.europa.eu/uploads/CRMs_for_Strategic_Technologies_and_Sectors_in_the_EU_2020.pdf

[11] https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/100-day-supply-chain-review-report.pdf

[12] https://cen.acs.org/business/inorganic-chemicals/Europe-poised-begin-lithium-mining/99/i21

[13] https://www.benchmarkminerals.com/membership/china-controls-sway-of-electric-vehicle-power-through-battery-chemicals-cathode-and-anode-production/

[14] https://www.e-mj.com/breaking-news/russias-rosatom-plans-to-launch-lithium-mines-in-siberia-arctic/#:~:text=In%20total%2C%20there%20are%2012,department%20of%20the%20Murmansk%20government.&text=In%20Russia%2C%20most%20lithium%20is%20concentrated%20in%20spodumene%20pegmatites.

[15] https://www.investorschronicle.co.uk/news/2021/12/21/the-race-for-european-lithium-supply-is-on/

[16] https://unitedlithium.com/projects/sweden/

[17] https://www.jstor.org/stable/44718499

[18] https://www.saftbatteries.com/media-resources/our-stories/air-power-why-newest-fighter-jet-carries-li-ion-batteries

[19] https://www.businessinsider.com/f-35-wont-save-natos-air-forces-from-putins-formidable-beasts-2019-3

[20] https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA468635

[21] https://www.epsilor.com/blog20122017/

[22] https://www.epsilor.com/blog20122017/

[23] https://droneii.com/the-drone-market-in-2021-and-beyond-5-key-takeaways#:~:text=1.,US%2441.3%20billion%20by%202026&text=To%20put%20this%20into%20context,been%20around%20for%20much%20longer.

[24] https://droneii.com/the-drone-market-in-2021-and-beyond-5-key-takeaways#:~:text=1.,US%2441.3%20billion%20by%202026&text=To%20put%20this%20into%20context,been%20around%20for%20much%20longer.

[25] https://nma.org/2021/10/20/lithium-batteries-in-defense/

[26] https://www.europeanmet.com/european-lithium-security/

[27] https://unitedlithium.com/company/

[28] https://www.energyandcapital.com/articles/lithium-stocks-2016/76468

[29] https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/lithium-market

[30] https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/lithium-market

[31] https://www.spglobal.com/marketintelligence/en/news-insights/latest-news-headlines/lithium-added-to-eu-s-list-of-critical-raw-materials-60204470

[32] https://www.europeanmet.com/european-lithium-security/

[33] https://www.woodmac.com/news/opinion/charging-stations-investing-in-europes-nascent-battery-industry/

[34] https://www.europeanmet.com/european-lithium-security/

[35] https://www.woodmac.com/news/opinion/charging-stations-investing-in-europes-nascent-battery-industry/

[36] https://www.investorschronicle.co.uk/news/2021/12/21/the-race-for-european-lithium-supply-is-on/

[37] https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/09/20210904-benchmark.html

[38] https://unitedlithium.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/ULTH-Presentation-Nov-2021-v01.pdf

[39] https://www.autoblog.com/2021/01/27/eu-electric-car-battery-production-in-europe/

[40] https://cen.acs.org/energy/energy-storage-/Europe-contender-electric-vehicle-batteries/98/i27

[41] https://cen.acs.org/energy/energy-storage-/Europe-contender-electric-vehicle-batteries/98/i27

[42] https://www.virta.global/global-electric-vehicle-market

[43] https://unitedlithium.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/ULTH-Presentation-Nov-2021-v01.pdf

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[46] https://unitedlithium.com/projects/sweden/

[47] https://geology.com/minerals/spodumene.shtml

[48] http://www.geologypage.com/2014/06/petalite.html

[49] https://newagemetals.com/lithium-supply-hard-rock-vs-brine/

[50] https://newagemetals.com/lithium-supply-hard-rock-vs-brine/

[51] https://newagemetals.com/lithium-supply-hard-rock-vs-brine/

[52] https://newagemetals.com/lithium-supply-hard-rock-vs-brine/

[53] https://unitedlithium.com/projects/sweden/

[54] https://unitedlithium.com/projects/sweden/

[55] https://unitedlithium.com/united-lithium-corp-discovers-two-new-lithium-rich-pegmatites-at-bergby-project-sweden-in-ongoing-drill-program/

[56] https://unitedlithium.com/united-lithium-corp-intersects-recently-discovered-spodumene-bearing-pegmatite-in-9-holes/

[57] https://unitedlithium.com/united-lithium-corp-discovers-two-new-lithium-rich-pegmatites-at-bergby-project-sweden-in-ongoing-drill-program/

[58] https://www.marketwatch.com/story/rio-tinto-reviewing-serbia-s-move-to-revoke-lithium-project-licenses-271642708379

[59] https://www.spglobal.com/marketintelligence/en/news-insights/latest-news-headlines/rio-tinto-s-lithium-setback-in-serbia-inflames-supply-squeeze-68523535

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[61] https://unitedlithium.com/united-lithium-corp-successful-in-improving-lithium-recovery-in-chemical-roasting-and-microwave-tests/

[62] https://unitedlithium.com/united-lithium-corp-successful-in-improving-lithium-recovery-in-chemical-roasting-and-microwave-tests/

[63] https://unitedlithium.com/united-lithium-corp-lithium-hydroxide-testing-underway-results-anticipated-late-february/

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[65] https://unitedlithium.com/united-lithium-corp-enters-into-definitive-agreement-for-the-acquisition-of-83-6-of-the-kietyonmaki-lithium-project/

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[73] https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal/delivering-european-green-deal_en

[74] https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal/delivering-european-green-deal_en

[75] https://www.reuters.com/article/us-climate-change-eu-transport/eu-to-target-30-million-electric-cars-by-2030-draft-idUSKBN28E2KM

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[81] https://www.media.volvocars.com/global/en-gb/media/pressreleases/283261/volvo-car-group-and-northvolt-to-join-forces-in-battery-development-and-production

[82] https://www.acea.auto/fact/fact-sheet-buses/

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[85] https://www.mordorintelligence.com/industry-reports/europe-electric-bus-market

[86] https://www.masstransitmag.com/bus/article/12131451/battery-bus-range-its-all-in-the-math

[87]  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12209-020-00236-w

[88]  https://www.economist.com/business/2016/01/14/an-increasingly-precious-metal

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[93] https://www.tesla.com/sites/default/files/pdfs/powerwall/Powerwall%202_AC_Datasheet_en_northamerica.pdf

[94] https://www.solarpowereurope.org/europes-residential-battery-storage-fleet-to-grow-over-400-by-2025/

[95] https://www.forbes.com/sites/randybrown/2021/04/13/are-we-about-to-enter-a-commodity-supercycle/?sh=9e497802d89a

[96] https://www.theguardian.com/business/2021/feb/17/mining-boom-commodity-supercycle-copper-nickel-price-investments-clean-energy

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[98] https://www.kitco.com/news/2022-01-24/Lithium-the-white-gold-is-just-getting-started-after-300-rally-in-2021-Bank-of-America.html

[99] https://www.epsilor.com/sections/blog/Blog24082017/#:~:text=Lithium%2Dion%20batteries%20are%20being,%2C%20ESM%2C%20and%20portable%20computing

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[101] https://www.instituteforenergyresearch.org/renewable/china-dominates-the-global-lithium-battery-market/#:~:text=In%202019%2C%20Chinese%20chemical%20companies,lithium%2C%20cobalt%2C%20and%20graphite.

[102] https://www.afr.com/world/europe/europe-looks-to-cut-dependence-on-chinese-commodities-20200904-p55s9h

[103] https://www.europeanmet.com/european-lithium-security/

[104] https://www.theguardian.com/business/2021/dec/29/northvolt-rolls-out-europes-first-gigafactory-era-car-battery

[105] https://www.reuters.com/article/us-climate-change-eu-transport/eu-to-target-30-million-electric-cars-by-2030-draft-idUSKBN28E2KM

[106] https://www.bankmycell.com/blog/how-many-phones-are-in-the-world

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[109] https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20200117005306/en/Lithium-Ion-Battery-Markets-Expected-to-Reach-1-Trillion-By-End-of-the-Forecast-Period-2020-2026—ResearchAndMarkets.com

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